Problem based learning for a student is based on solving a problem as a group work, you work it out with your team members, everyone has a certain responsibility the responsibilities that we should mainly focus on is how to distribute the problem among us, each person takes part of the problem and finds a solution and after we gather all the information we need, in order to succeed we must have a tutor who guides the students because they are not that experienced with PBL (problem based learning) so they need someone for the first time they work on PBL (problem based learning).
As a student in a problem based learning curriculum to work with a problem they should be able to identify what they need to learn and what resources they are going to use to accomplish that learning. By this students would be able to design their own learning because everyone in the group has his own experience and knowledge. This allows students to know what their responsibility is towards this problem, but under faculty guidance it prepares them to become effective and efficient. As you work with each problem you can:
Develop your diagnostic reasoning and analytical problem-solving skills.
Determine what knowledge you need to acquire to understand the problem, and others like it.
Discover the best resources for acquiring that information.
Carry out your own personalized study using a wide range of resources.
Apply the information you have learned back to the problem.
[ Integrate this newly acquired knowledge with your existing understanding. The old educational truism states that half of what the students learn in school will be wrong or outdated by the time they are in the real world, and no one knows which half that is. This means that the teachers working with the students should not provide the students with what they feel is the information students need in their studies nor give them reading or study assignments. The students must learn how to decide on what they need to learn and to seek out appropriate learning resources and using the faculty as consultants in PBL (problem based learning). So what this means is that PBL (problem based learning) is not teacher centered, the teacher does not tell the student what to do and what resources they should use. Instead the teacher just designs and provides the problem simulations and problem experiences that challenge the students. ] Raquel Lacuesta, Guillermo, and Luis FernándezPalacios (October 18 - 21, 2009)
[ PBL (problem based learning) has a couple of ground rules mostly it is a combination of educational method and philosophy. Philosophically problem based learning is centered on the student and on problem first learning, whereas in subject based learning teachers give the knowledge they have to students before using problems to illustrate it. Problem based learning enables students to acquire and structure knowledge in an efficient way. With PBL (problem based learning) assessment is not separate from instruction rather assessment is the same as learning. The focus and purpose of assessment is on learning, how it’s done, and how it can be better. ] Gillian Maudsley (December 3, 1998)
[ With PBL (problem based learning) the instructor is no longer the sole yardstick by which your progress will be measured; his role is just to help students check on their progress and monitor themselves. You and your group will start checking on each other’s work and start evaluating each other and learn how they did their work and probably follow their steps or learn a couple.
So far in PBL (problem based learning) there are a couple of highly recommended steps that helped a lot of people work with PBL.
1. The Chair and the group read the problem; the Chair will ask if any of the group do not understand any of the vocabulary in the problem - not concepts or theories but literally the vocabulary. Any queries can be resolved through the use of a dictionary!
2. The Chair asks the group to identify what they think the problem statement is about. At this stage, you may be clueless about the depth of the knowledge inherent in the statement but this will become clearer as the process continues. Some of the answers therefore may be naïve or ignorant but this does not matter. The important thing is for the group to begin to explore the issues relating to the problem - lateral thinking may be necessary!
3. A brainstorm session is held to ascertain what, if anything, is known about the subject matter by any of the group at this point in time.
4. The Minutes Secretary identifies the key issues that have been discussed. The Chair ensures that a clear list of what is known, what is unclear and what needs to be investigated in more detail is established. This is designed to help the group understand the issues surrounding the problem.
5. The group agree on the learning objectives that they will have to research before the next meeting.
6. Individual Study - depending on which research route the group decides to go down, each member should either tackle all of the learning objectives, or specific objectives designated to each individual. The former is more time consuming and may avoid inculcating the collaborative team based learning experience. However, the latter option may result in gaps in an individual's knowledge and understanding. You may be provided with a list of references to help guide you in your line of investigation. Biz/ed will be providing a list of relevant Web links and key texts which you may use as a starting point to your research, although this is not meant to be an exhaustive or exclusive list.
7. The group meets for the second time. Each learning objective is considered and the students contribute the results of their research to the discussion. It is suggested that this can be done either formally, i.e. in turn, or through group discussion. At the end of this stage of the process the Minutes Secretary will be given time (subsequent to the meeting) to write out the report. The group will then be given a further problem and the process will begin again with a different Secretary and Chair.] Biz/ed amd Graham Clayton ( 1996-2010 )
[ At minimum, students will be assessed in three broad areas:
Applied Competence. Demonstrate the ability to use organizational design and change management concepts and frameworks to identify and analyze variables that can influence an organization's overall effectiveness.
Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving and Communicative Competence. Identify problems and/or opportunities in organizational contexts and make specific recommendations, supported by theory, to improve the situation. Accurately and competently using theoretical frameworks from organization design and change literature to interpret and solve business problems, and effectively communicating your analyses to others in a variety of professional contexts. Implementing your problem solving activities with a commitment to quality.
Collaborative and Leadership Competence. Collaborates as a member of a project team, taking the initiative in identifying and solving problems or pursuing opportunities for learning and improvement within your group.] Ron Purser ( copyright unkown )
Work cited from
Graham Clayton of Plymouth Business School and Wim H. Gijselaers of the University of Maastricht (1996-2010). PBL Guid for students cited from http://www.bized.co.uk/current/pbl/student.htm fourth paragraph and ninth paragraph.
PBL assesment philosophy, Ron Purser Professor of Management cited from http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~rpurser/revised/pages/problem.htm last subject PBl assesment philosophy
Roles and responsibilities of the problem based learning tutor in the undergraduate medical curriculum, (1999) Articles from BMJ : British Medical Journal are provided by BMJ Publishing Group cited from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1115096/
Active learning through Problem Based Learning Methodology in Engineering Education (October 18 - 21, 2009). Authors Raquel Lacuesta, Guillermo, and Luis FernándezPalacios. Cited from http://fie-conference.org/fie2009/papers/1338.pdf